Oxytocin ( DrugBank: Oxytocin )


6 diseases
告示番号疾患名(ページ内リンク)臨床試験数
6パーキンソン病1
72下垂体性ADH分泌異常症3
127前頭側頭葉変性症4
193プラダー・ウィリ症候群22
206脆弱X症候群1
226間質性膀胱炎(ハンナ型)1

6. パーキンソン病


臨床試験数 : 2,298 薬物数 : 2,202 - (DrugBank : 350) / 標的遺伝子数 : 188 - 標的パスウェイ数 : 202
No.TrialIDDate_
enrollment
Date_
registration
Public_titleScientific_titleConditionInterventionPrimary_
sponsor
Secondary_
sponsor
Recruitment_
Status
Inclusion_
agemin
Inclusion_
agemax
Inclusion_
gender
Target_
size
PhaseCountries
1EUCTR2018-002877-23-AT
(EUCTR)
21/01/201907/12/2018Oxytocin and social attention in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover eye tracking study. - Oxytocin in healthy controls and PD Oxytocin and social attention in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover eye tracking study. - Oxytocin in healthy controls and PD Social functioning in Parkinson's disease
MedDRA version: 20.0;Level: PT;Classification code 10061536;Term: Parkinson's disease;System Organ Class: 10029205 - Nervous system disorders;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Nervous System Diseases [C10]
Trade Name: Syntocinon 40 IU/ml nasal spray
INN or Proposed INN: Synthetic Oxytocin
Other descriptive name: OXYTOCIN SYNTHETIC
Abteilung für Neurologie der Medizinischen Universität InnsbruckNULLNot RecruitingFemale: no
Male: yes
76Phase 2Austria

72. 下垂体性ADH分泌異常症


臨床試験数 : 40 薬物数 : 28 - (DrugBank : 7) / 標的遺伝子数 : 4 - 標的パスウェイ数 : 8
No.TrialIDDate_
enrollment
Date_
registration
Public_titleScientific_titleConditionInterventionPrimary_
sponsor
Secondary_
sponsor
Recruitment_
Status
Inclusion_
agemin
Inclusion_
agemax
Inclusion_
gender
Target_
size
PhaseCountries
1NCT04789148
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
February 20225/3/2021Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin in Patients With Central Diabetes InsipidusEffects of Intranasal Oxytocin in Patients With Central Diabetes Insipidus - A Pilot StudyCentral Diabetes InsipidusDrug: Oxytocin nasal sprayElizabeth Austen LawsonNULLNot yet recruiting18 Years60 YearsAll30Phase 1United States
2NCT04897802
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
September 13, 202117/5/2021Identification and Clinical Relevance of an Oxytocin Deficient State (GLP1 Study)Identification and Clinical Relevance of an Oxytocin Deficient State: a Randomized, Crossover, Placebo-controlled, Proof-of-concept, Physiopathological Study (GLP1 Study)Hypopituitarism;Central Diabetes Insipidus;Panhypopituitarism;Psychological Disorder;Social Isolation;Hypothalamic Diseases;Pituitary Diseases;Oxytocin DeficiencyDrug: Experimental: GLP1-RA (exenatide) administration;Drug: Control: Placebo administrationFundació Institut de Recerca de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant PauInstituto de Salud Carlos IIIRecruiting18 Years65 YearsAll52Phase 4Spain
3NCT04902235
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
July 6, 202117/5/2021Identification and Clinical Relevance of an Oxytocin Deficient State (CRH Study)Identification and Clinical Relevance of an Oxytocin Deficient State: a Randomized, Crossover, Placebo-controlled, Proof-of-concept Physiopathological Study (CRH Study)Hypopituitarism;Central Diabetes Insipidus;Panhypopituitarism;Psychological Disorder;Social Isolation;Hypothalamic Diseases;Pituitary Diseases;Oxytocin DeficiencyDrug: Experimental: CRH administration;Drug: Control: Placebo administrationFundació Institut de Recerca de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant PauInstituto de Salud Carlos IIIRecruiting18 Years65 YearsAll52Phase 4Spain

127. 前頭側頭葉変性症


臨床試験数 : 89 薬物数 : 104 - (DrugBank : 33) / 標的遺伝子数 : 40 - 標的パスウェイ数 : 117
No.TrialIDDate_
enrollment
Date_
registration
Public_titleScientific_titleConditionInterventionPrimary_
sponsor
Secondary_
sponsor
Recruitment_
Status
Inclusion_
agemin
Inclusion_
agemax
Inclusion_
gender
Target_
size
PhaseCountries
1NCT03260920
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
January 31, 201819/7/2017Intranasal Oxytocin for Frontotemporal DementiaA Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Intranasal Oxytocin for Frontotemporal DementiaFrontotemporal DementiaDrug: SyntocinonLawson Health Research InstituteWeston Brain Institute;Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR);Berry ConsultantsRecruiting30 Years80 YearsAll112Phase 2United States;Canada
2NCT01937013
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
September 12, 20133/9/2013Impact of Emotional Mimicry and Oxytocin on Frontotemporal DementiaImpact of Emotional Mimicry and Oxytocin on Frontotemporal DementiaFrontotemporal DementiaDrug: Intranasal oxytocin;Drug: Saline Nasal MistLawson Health Research InstituteCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)Completed30 Years85 YearsAll52Phase 2Canada
3NCT01386333
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
June 201129/6/2011Safety Study of Intranasal Oxytocin in Frontotemporal DementiaA Phase I Dose Finding Study of Intranasal Oxytocin in Frontotemporal Dementia, Protocol # FTDOXY10EFFrontotemporal DementiaDrug: oxytocin;Drug: Saline Nasal MistLawson Health Research InstituteThe Consortium of Canadian Centres for Clinical Cognitive Research (C5R)Completed30 Years80 YearsBoth23Phase 1Canada
4NCT01002300
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
September 200923/10/2009Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Frontotemporal DementiaInvestigation of the Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on Cognition and Emotion Processing in Frontotemporal DementiaFrontotemporal Dementia;Pick's DiseaseDrug: intranasal oxytocinLawson Health Research InstituteThe Alzheimer Society London and MiddlesexCompleted30 Years80 YearsBoth24N/ACanada

193. プラダー・ウィリ症候群


臨床試験数 : 111 薬物数 : 120 - (DrugBank : 30) / 標的遺伝子数 : 51 - 標的パスウェイ数 : 103
No.TrialIDDate_
enrollment
Date_
registration
Public_titleScientific_titleConditionInterventionPrimary_
sponsor
Secondary_
sponsor
Recruitment_
Status
Inclusion_
agemin
Inclusion_
agemax
Inclusion_
gender
Target_
size
PhaseCountries
1EUCTR2019-002385-12-NL
(EUCTR)
26/08/202108/09/2020Oxytocin treatment in neonates and infants aged from 0 to 3 months with prader-willi syndromeOxytocin treatment in neonates and infants aged from 0 to 3 months with prader-willi syndrome: a study of the safety and efficacy on oral and social skills and, feeding behavior of intranasal administrations of oxytocin vs. placebo (phase iii clinical trial) - OTBB3 Prader-Willi Syndrom;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: Oxytocin
INN or Proposed INN: OXYTOCIN
Other descriptive name: OXYTOCIN
University Hospital of ToulouseNULLNot RecruitingFemale: yes
Male: yes
48Phase 3France;Belgium;Germany;Netherlands
2EUCTR2019-002385-12-DE
(EUCTR)
07/07/202121/04/2021OXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROMEOXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: A STUDY OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY ON ORAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS AND, FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATIONS OF OXYTOCIN VS. PLACEBO (PHASE III CLINICAL TRIAL) - OTBB3 Prader-Willi Syndrome;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: Oxytocin
INN or Proposed INN: OXYTOCIN
Other descriptive name: OXYTOCIN
University Hospital of ToulouseNULLAuthorised-recruitment may be ongoing or finishedFemale: yes
Male: yes
48Phase 3France;Belgium;Netherlands;Germany
3NCT04283578
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
March 10, 202019/2/2020Oxytocin Treatment in Neonates and Infants With Prader-Willi SyndromeOxytocin Treatment in Neonates and Infants Aged From 0 to 3 Months With Prader-Willi Syndrome : a Study of Safety and Efficacy on Oral and Social Skills and Feeding Behavior of Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin vs PlaceboPrader-Willi SyndromeDrug: OT;Drug: Placebo comparatorUniversity Hospital, ToulouseInternational Clinical Trials Association;Epidemiological and Clinical Research Information NetworkActive, not recruitingN/A92 DaysAll48Phase 3France
4EUCTR2019-002385-12-FR
(EUCTR)
27/08/201912/06/2019OXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROMEOXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: A STUDY OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY ON ORAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS AND, FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATIONS OF OXYTOCIN VS. PLACEBO (PHASE III CLINICAL TRIAL) - OTBB3 Prader-Willi Syndrom;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: Oxytocin
INN or Proposed INN: OXYTOCIN
Other descriptive name: OXYTOCIN
University Hospital of ToulouseNULLAuthorised-recruitment may be ongoing or finished Female: yes
Male: yes
48 Human pharmacology (Phase 1): no Therapeutic exploratory (Phase 2): no Therapeutic confirmatory - (Phase 3): yes Therapeutic use (Phase 4): noFrance
5NCT03197662
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
April 11, 201819/6/2017Intranasal Oxytocin vs. Placebo for the Treatment of Hyperphagia in Prader-Willi SyndromePhase 2 Study: Intranasal Oxytocin vs. Placebo for the Treatment of Hyperphagia in Children and Adolescents With Prader-Willi SyndromePrader-Willi Syndrome;HyperphagiaDrug: Intranasal Oxytocin (IN-OXT);Drug: Matched PlaceboMontefiore Medical CenterNULLRecruiting5 Years17 YearsAll50Phase 2United States
6EUCTR2017-003423-30-NL
(EUCTR)
12/12/201704/10/2017Intranasal administration of oxytocin in children with Prader-Willi syndromeRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled oxytocin and dose-response trial in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.Effects on social behaviour. Prader-Willi syndrome
MedDRA version: 20.0;Level: PT;Classification code 10036476;Term: Prader-Willi syndrome;System Organ Class: 10010331 - Congenital, familial and genetic disorders;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]
Trade Name: Syntocinon nasal spray
Product Name: oxytocin
Product Code: oxytocin
Dutch Growth Research FoundationNULLAuthorised-recruitment may be ongoing or finishedFemale: yes
Male: yes
33Phase 2;Phase 3Netherlands
7NCT03245762
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
August 1, 20177/8/2017Intranasal Oxytocin for Infants With Prader-Willi SyndromeIntranasal Oxytocin for Treatment of Infants and Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome in Nutritional Phase 1a - Phase 2 StudyPrader-Willi SyndromeDrug: Oxytocin;Drug: PlaceboUniversity of FloridaPrader-Willi Syndrome AssociationCompletedN/A6 MonthsAll15Phase 1/Phase 2United States
8NCT03081832
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
January 201710/3/2017Follow-up of Prader Willi Syndrome Infants Treated by Oxytocin and Comparison With Not-treated Infants.Long Term Evaluation of Infants Aged From 3 to 4 Years Old Included in the Ancient Study (Repeated Administrations of Oxytocin in Infants With Prader Willi Syndrome Aged From 0 to 6 Months) and Comparison With Not Treated and Age-matched Prader Willi Syndrome Infants (OT2SUITE)Prader-Willi SyndromeDrug: Oxytocin;Other: ControlUniversity Hospital, ToulouseNULLCompleted3 Years4 YearsAll34N/AFrance
9EUCTR2016-003820-22-NL
(EUCTR)
22/12/201612/10/2016Intranasal administration of oxytocin in children with Prader-Willi SyndromeIntranasal administration of oxytocin in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome. A randomized, open-label, cross-over trial of different treatment regimens of oxytocin administration. Effects on eating behaviour and social behaviour. - Intranasal administration of oxytocin in children with PWS Prader-Willi syndrome
MedDRA version: 19.0;Level: PT;Classification code 10036476;Term: Prader-Willi syndrome;System Organ Class: 10010331 - Congenital, familial and genetic disorders;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]
Trade Name: Syntocinon nasal spray
Product Name: oxytocin
Product Code: oxytocin
Dutch Growth Research FoundationNULLNot RecruitingFemale: yes
Male: yes
Phase 3Netherlands
10NCT03114371
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
November 28, 201610/3/2017Oxytocin Intranasal Administrations in Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome Aged From 3 to 12 YearsEffects of Intranasal Administrations of Oxytocin on Behavioural Troubles, Hyperphagia and Social Skills in Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome Aged From 3 to 12 Years.Prader-Willi SyndromeDrug: Oxytocin;Drug: PlaceboUniversity Hospital, ToulouseNULLCompleted3 Years12 YearsAll40N/AFrance
11EUCTR2016-003273-18-FR
(EUCTR)
14/11/201622/08/2016Oxytocin intranasal administrations in children with Prader-Willi syndrome aged from 3 to 12 years.Effects of intranasal administrations of oxytocin on beahvioural troubles, hyperphagia and social skills in children with Prader-Willi syndrome aged from 3 to 12 years. - OXYJEUNE Prader-Willi Syndrom;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Trade Name: SyntocinonUniversity Hospital of ToulouseNULLNot RecruitingFemale: yes
Male: yes
40Phase 3France
12NCT02629991
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
October 201518/10/2015Oxytocin vs. Placebo for the Treatment Hyperphagia in Children and Adolescents With Prader-Willi SyndromeOxytocin vs. Placebo for the Treatment Hyperphagia in Children and Adolescents With Prader-Willi SyndromePrader-Willi Syndrome;HyperphagiaDrug: Intranasal Oxytocin (IN-OXT);Drug: Matched PlaceboMontefiore Medical CenterFoundation for Prader-Willi ResearchUnknown status5 Years18 YearsAll24Phase 2United States
13NCT02013258
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
March 201511/12/2013Oxytocin Trial in Prader-Willi SyndromeOxytocin Trial in Prader-Willi SyndromePrader Willi SyndromeDrug: Intranasal oxytocin;Other: PlaceboUniversity of FloridaNational Institutes of Health (NIH)Completed5 Years11 YearsAll24Phase 1United States
14EUCTR2013-004134-15-NL
(EUCTR)
15/07/201420/03/2014Intranasal administration of oxytocin in children and young-adults with Prader-Willi syndromeIntranasal administration of oxytocin in children and young adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Effects on satiety and food intake, and social behaviour. - Intranasal administration of oxytocin in PWS Prader-Willi syndrome
MedDRA version: 17.0;Level: PT;Classification code 10036476;Term: Prader-Willi syndrome;System Organ Class: 10010331 - Congenital, familial and genetic disorders;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]
Trade Name: Syntocinon nasal spray
Product Name: oxytocin
Product Code: oxytocin
Dutch Growth Research FoundationNULLNot RecruitingFemale: yes
Male: yes
Phase 3Netherlands
15NCT02804373
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
June 201410/7/2015Effects of Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin in Adults With Prader-Willi SyndromeEffects of Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin in Adults With Prader-Willi SyndromePrader-Willi SyndromeDrug: Oxytocin (OXT) continuous;Drug: Placebo;Drug: Placebo continuous;Drug: OxytocinUniversity Hospital, ToulouseNULLCompleted18 Years50 YearsAll50Phase 2/Phase 3France
16NCT02205034
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
May 201322/7/2014Evaluation of Tolerance, Suckling and Food Intake After Repeated Nasals Administrations of Oxytocin in PWS InfantsEvaluation of Tolerance, Suckling and Food Intake After Repeated Nasals Administrations of Oxytocin in PWS InfantsPrader Willi SyndromeDrug: oxytocinUniversity Hospital, ToulouseNULLCompleted1 Month5 MonthsAll18Phase 1/Phase 2France
17NCT01548521
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
July 201130/12/2011Tolerance of Intranasal Administration of OT in Prader-Willi Newborn BabiesTolerance of Intranasal Administration of OT in Prader-Willi Newborn Babies and Effect on Suck and Food Intake.Prader-Willi SyndromeDrug: OxytocinUniversity Hospital, ToulouseNULLCompletedN/A5 MonthsAll5Phase 1/Phase 2France
18NCT01038570
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
June 200916/11/2009Comparative Study Between Prader-Willi Patients Who Take Oxytocin Versus PlaceboEvaluation of the Effect of the Oxytocin Administered in Nasal Pulverizing on the Social Skills, the Stress, the Anxiety and the Eating Habits at Grown-up Patients Presenting a Syndrome of Prader-Willi: Pilot StudyPrader Willi SyndromeDrug: Syntocinon®/- Spray;Drug: Physiological serum (Sodium chloride)University Hospital, ToulouseNULLCompleted18 YearsN/AAll24Phase 2France
19EUCTR2019-002385-12-BE
(EUCTR)
06/03/2020OXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROMEOXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: A STUDY OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY ON ORAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS AND, FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATIONS OF OXYTOCIN VS. PLACEBO (PHASE III CLINICAL TRIAL) - OTBB3 Prader-Willi Syndrom;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: Oxytocin
INN or Proposed INN: OXYTOCIN
Other descriptive name: OXYTOCIN
University Hospital of ToulouseNULLNAFemale: yes
Male: yes
48Phase 3France;Belgium
20EUCTR2020-006161-11-FR
(EUCTR)
21/04/2021FOLLOW-UP STUDY UP TO 4 YEARS OF AGE OF CHILDREN WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME INCLUDED IN THE OTBB3 CLINICAL TRIALLONG -TERM INTERVENTIONAL FOLLOW-UP STUDY UP TO 4 YEARS OF AGE OF CHILDREN WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME INCLUDED IN THE OTBB3 CLINICAL TRIAL AND COMPARISON WITH AN UNTREATED COHORT OF CHILDREN WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME - OTBB3 Follow-Up Prader-willi syndrome;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: oxytocinToulouse University HospitalNULLNAFemale: yes
Male: yes
80Phase 3France
21EUCTR2019-002385-12-IT
(EUCTR)
04/06/2021OXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROMEOXYTOCIN TREATMENT IN NEONATES AND INFANTS AGED FROM 0 TO 3 MONTHS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: A STUDY OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY ON ORAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS AND, FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATIONS OF OXYTOCIN VS. PLACEBO (PHASE III CLINICAL TRIAL) - OTBB3 Prader-Willi Syndrom;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: Oxytocin
Product Code: [H01BB02]
INN or Proposed INN: OSSITOCINA
Other descriptive name: Oxytocin
University Hospital ToulouseNULLNAFemale: yes
Male: yes
48Phase 3France;Belgium;Netherlands;Germany;Italy
22EUCTR2021-000094-91-FR
(EUCTR)
01/04/2021EFFECT OF INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN ON DYSPHAGIA IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH PRADER WILLI SYNDROMEEFFECT OF INTRANASAL OXYTOCIN ON DYSPHAGIA RELATED TO OROPHARYNGO-OESOPHAGEAL DYSMOTILITY TRANSIT IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: A PHASE 3 STUDY (DYSMOT) - DYSMOT Prader-Willi Syndrome;Therapeutic area: Diseases [C] - Hormonal diseases [C19]Product Name: OXYTOCIN
Product Code: H01BB02
Toulouse University HospitalNULLNAFemale: yes
Male: yes
36Phase 3France

206. 脆弱X症候群


臨床試験数 : 104 薬物数 : 87 - (DrugBank : 32) / 標的遺伝子数 : 54 - 標的パスウェイ数 : 79
No.TrialIDDate_
enrollment
Date_
registration
Public_titleScientific_titleConditionInterventionPrimary_
sponsor
Secondary_
sponsor
Recruitment_
Status
Inclusion_
agemin
Inclusion_
agemax
Inclusion_
gender
Target_
size
PhaseCountries
1NCT01254045
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
February 20072/12/2010Double-blind Placebo Controlled Study of Oxytocin in Fragile X SyndromeDouble-blind Placebo Controlled Study of Oxytocin in Fragile X SyndromeFragile X SyndromeDrug: placebo;Drug: oxytocin 24IU;Drug: oxytocin 48IUStanford UniversityNULLCompleted13 Years29 YearsMale10Phase 2United States

226. 間質性膀胱炎(ハンナ型)


臨床試験数 : 143 薬物数 : 171 - (DrugBank : 56) / 標的遺伝子数 : 64 - 標的パスウェイ数 : 145
No.TrialIDDate_
enrollment
Date_
registration
Public_titleScientific_titleConditionInterventionPrimary_
sponsor
Secondary_
sponsor
Recruitment_
Status
Inclusion_
agemin
Inclusion_
agemax
Inclusion_
gender
Target_
size
PhaseCountries
1NCT00919802
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
June 20109/6/2009Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated With Interstitial CystitisIntranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated With Interstitial CystitisInterstitial CystitisDrug: Oxytocin;Other: Saline as a nasal sprayUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamNULLCompleted19 Years65 YearsAll25Phase 4United States